تحميل لكتاب من سلسلة امهات كتب الحاسب الآلي The Art Of Electronics Paul Horowitz هورويتز فن الالكترونيات علي اكثر من سيرفر

هذا الكتاب هو كتابي المفضل ف Paul Horowitz فعلا يقدم ما يعتبر The Art Of Electronics بداية من المقاومة حتي المعالجات باسلوب يحفز النظام البديهي و الحدث الهندسي و والمهارات العملية  وهو يتعرض للالكترونيات التناظرية و الرقميه اذا ارت كتاب يبدأ معك من الصفر حتي الاحتراف في عالم الالكترونيات فهذا هو الكتاب الذي تحتاجه و هذا الكتاب يعتبر ربط بين علم الحوسبة والالكترونيات


CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

FOUNDATIONS 1

Introduction 1

Voltage, current, and resistance 2

1.01 Voltage and current 2

1.02 Relationship between voltage and current: resistors 4

1.03 Voltage dividers 8

1.04 Voltage and current sources 9

1.05 Thevenin’s equivalent circuit 11

1.06 Small-signal resistance 13

Signals 15

1.07 Sinusoidal signals 15

1.08 Signal amplitudes and decibels 16

1.09 Other signals 17

1.10 Logic levels 19

1.11 Signal sources 19

Capacitors and ac circuits 20

1.12 Capacitors 20

1.13 RC circuits: V and I versus time 23

1.14 Differentiators 25

1.15 Integrators 26

Inductors and transformers 28

1.16 Inductors 28

1.1 7 Transformers 28

Impedance and reactance 29

1.18 Frequency analysis of reactive circuits 30

1.19 RC filters 35

1.20 Phasor diagrams 39

1.21 “Poles” and decibels per octave 40

1.22 Resonant circuits and active filters 41

1.23 Other capacitor applications 42

1.24 Thevenin’s theorem generalized 44

Diodes and diode circuits 44

1.25 Diodes 44

1.26 Rectification 44

1.27 Power-supply filtering 45

1.28 Rectifier configurations for power supplies 46

1.29 Regulators 48

1.30 Circuit applications of diodes 48

1.31 Inductive loads and diode protection 52

Other passive components 53

1.32 Electromechanical devices 53

1.33 Indicators 57

1.34 Variable components 57

Additional exercises 58


CHAPTER 2

TRANSISTORS 61

Introduction 61

2.01 First transistor model: current amplifier 62

Some basic transistor circuits 63

2.02 Transistor switch 63

2.03 Emitter follower 65

2.04 Emitter followers as voltage regulators 68

2.05 Emitter follower biasing 69

2.06 Transistor current source 72

2.07 Common-emitter amplifier 76

2.08 Unity-gain phase splitter 77

2.09 Transconductance 78

Ebers-Moll model applied to basic transistor circuits 79

2.10 Improved transistor model:

transconductance amplifier 79

2.11 The emitter follower revisited 81

2.12 The common-emitter amplifier revisited 82

2.13 Biasing the common-emitter amplifier 84

2.14 Current mirrors 88

Some amplifier building blocks 91

2.15 Push-pull output stages 91

2.16 Darlington connection 94

2.17 Bootstrapping 96

2.18 Differential amplifiers 98

2.19 Capacitance and Miller effect 102

2.20 Field-effect transistors 104

Some typical transistor circuits 104

2.21 Regulated power supply 104

2.22 Temperature controller 105

2.23 Simple logic with transistors and diodes 107

Self-explanatory circuits 107

2.24 Good circuits 107

2.25 Bad circuits 107

Additional exercises 107

CHAPTER 3

FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS 113

Introduction 113

3.01 FET characteristics 114

3.02 FET types 117

3.03 Universal FET characteristics 119

3.04 FET drain characteristics 121

3.05 Manufacturing spread of FET

characteristics 122

Basic FET circuits 124

3.06 JFET current sources 125

3.07 FET amplifiers 129

3.08 Source followers 133

3.09 FET gate current 135

3.10 FETs as variable resistors 138

FET switches 140

3.11 FET analog switches 141

3.12 Limitations of FET switches 144

3.13 Some FET analog switch examples 151

3.14 MOSFET logic and power switches 153

3.15 MOSFET handling precautions 169

Self-explanatory circuits 171

3.16 Circuit ideas 171

3.17 Bad circuits 171 vskipopt

CHAPTER 4

FEEDBACK AND OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 175

Introduction 175

4.01 Introduction to feedback 175

4.02 Operational amplifiers 176

4.03 The golden rules 177

Basic op-amp circuits 177

4.04 Inverting amplifier 177

4.05 Noninverting amplifier 178

4.06 Follower 179

4.07 Current sources 180

4.08 Basic cautions for op-amp circuits 182

An op-arnp smorgasbord 183

4.09 Linear circuits 183

4.10 Nonlinear circuits 187

A detailed look at op-arnp behavior 188

4.11 Departure from ideal op-amp performance 189

4.12 Effects of op-amp limitations on circuit behavior 193

4.13 Low-power and programmable op-amps 210

Adetailed look at selected op-amp circuits 213

4.14 Logarithmic amplifier 213

4.15 Active peak detector 217

4.16 Sample-and-ho1d 220

4.17 Active clamp 221

4.18 Absolute-value circuit 221

4.19 Integrators 222

4.20 Differentiators 224

Op-amp operation with a single power supply 224

4.21 Biasing single-supply ac amplifiers 225

4.22 Single-supply op-amps 225

Comparators and Schmitt trigger 229

4.23 Comparators 229

4.24 Schmitt trigger 231

Feedback with finite-gain amplifiers 232

4.25 Gain equation 232

4.26 Effects of feedback on amplifier circuits 233

4.27 Two examples of transistor amplifiers with feedback 236

Some typical op-amp circuits 238

4.28 General-purpose lab amplifier 238

4.29 Voltage-controlled oscillator 240

4.30 JFET linear switch with RON compensation 241

4.31 TTL zero-crossing detector 242

4.32 Load-current-sensing circuit 242

Feedback amplifier frequency compensation 242

4.33 Gain and phase shift versus frequency 243

4.34 Amplifier compensation methods 245

4.35 Frequency response of the feedback network 247

Self-explanatory circuits 250

4.36 Circuit ideas 250

4.37 Bad circuits 250

Additional exercises 251

CHAPTER 5

ACTIVE FILTERS AND OSCILLATORS 263

Active filters 263

5.01 Frequency response with RC filters 263

5.02 Ideal performance with LC filters 265

5.03 Enter active filters: an overview 266

5.04 Key filter performance criteria 267

5.05 Filter types 268

Active filter circuits 272

5.06 VCVS circuits 273

5.07 VCVS filter design using our simplified table 274

5.08 State-variable filters 276

5.09 Twin-T notch filters 279

5.10 Gyrator filter realizations 281

5.11 Switched-capacitor filters 281

Oscillators 284

5.12 Introduction to oscillators 284

5.13 Relaxation oscillators 284

5.14 The classic timer chip: the 555 286

5.15 Voltage-controlled oscillators 291

5.16 Quadrature oscillators 291

5.17 Wien bridge and LC oscillators 296

5.18 LC oscillators 297

5.19 Quartz-crystal oscillators 300

Self-explanatory circuits 303

5.20 Circuit ideas 303

Additional exercises 303

CHAPTER 6

VOLTAGE REGULATORS AND POWER CIRCUITS 307

Basic regulator circuits with the classic 723 307

6.01 The 723 regulator 307

6.02 Positive regulator 309

6.03 High-current regulator 311

Heat and power design 312

6.04 Power transistors and heat sinking 312

6.05 Foldback current limiting 316

6.06 Overvoltage crowbars 317

6.07 Further considerations in high current power-supply design 320

6.08 Programmable supplies 321

6.09 Power-supply circuit example 323

6.10 Other regulator ICs 325

The unregulated supply 325

6.11 ac line components 326

6.12 Transformer 328

6.13 dc components 329

Voltage references 331

6.14 Zener diodes 332

6.15 Bandgap (VB E ) reference 335

Three-terminal and four-terminal regulators 341

6.16 Three-terminal regulators 341

6.17 Three-terminal adjustable regulators 344

6.18 Additional comments about 3-terminal regulators 345

6.19 Switching regulators and de-de

converters 355

Special-purpose power-supply circuits 368

6.20 High-voltage regulators 368

6.21 Low-noise, low-drift supplies 374

6.22 Micropower regulators 376

6.23 Flying-capacitor (charge pump) voltage converters 377

6.24 Constant-current supplies 379

6.25 Commercial power-supply modules 382

Self-explanatory circuits 384

6.26 Circuit ideas 384

6.27 Bad circuits 384

Additional exercises 384

CHAPTER 7

PRECISION CIRCUITS AND LOW-NOISE

TECHNIQUES 391

Precision op-amp design techniques 391

7.01 Precision versus dynamic range 391

7.02 Error budget 392

7.03 Example circuit: precision amplifier with automatic null offset 392

7.04 A precision-design error budget 394

7.05 Component errors 395

7.06 Amplifier input errors 396

7.07 Amplifier output errors 403

7.08 Auto-zeroing (chopper-stabilized) amplifiers 415

Differential and instrumentation amplifiers 421

7.09 Differencing amplifier 421

7.10 Standard three-op-amp instrumentation amplifier 425

Amplifier noise 428

7.11 Origins and kinds of noise 430

7.12 Signal-to-noise ratio and noise figure 433

7.13 Transistor amplifier voltage and current noise 436

7.14 Low-noise design with transistors 438

7.15 FET noise 443

7.16 Selecting low-noise transistors 445

7.17 Noise in differential and feedback amplifiers 445

Noise measurements and noise sources 449

7.18 Measurement without a noise source 449

7.19 Measurement with noise source 450

7.20 Noise and signal sources 452

7.21 Bandwidth limiting and rms voltage measurement 453

7.22 Noise potpourri 454

Interference: shielding and grounding 455

7.23 Interference 455

7.24 Signal grounds 457

7.25 Grounding between instruments 457

Self-explanatory circuits 466

7.26 Circuit ideas 466

Additional exercises 466

CHAPTER 8

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS 471

Basic logic concepts 471

8.01 Digital versus analog 471

8.02 Logic states 472

8.03 Number codes 473

8.04 Gates and truth tables 478

8.05 Discrete circuits for gates 480

8.06 Gate circuit example 481

8.07 Assertion-level logic notation 482

TTL and CMOS 484

8.08 Catalog of common gates 484

8.09 IC gate circuits 485

8.10 TTL and CMOS characteristics 486

8.11 Three-state and open-collector devices 487

Combinational logic 490

8.12 Logic identities 491

8.13 Minimization and Karnaugh maps 492

8.14 Combinational functions available as ICs 493

8.15 Implementing arbitrary truth tables 500

Sequential logic 504

8.16 Devices with memory: flipflops 504

8.17 Clocked flip-flops 507

8.18 Combining memory and gates: sequential logic 512

8.19 Synchronizer 515

Monostable multivibrators 517

8.20 One-shot characteristics 517

8.21 Monostab1e circuit example 519

8.22 Cautionary notes about monostables 519

8.23 Timing with counters 522

Sequential functions available as ICs 523

8.24 Latches and registers 523

8.25 Counters 524

8.26 Shift registers 525

8.27 Sequential PALs 527

8.28 Miscellaneous sequential functions 541

Some typical digital circuits 544

8.29 Modulo-a counter: a timing example 544

8.30 Multiplexed LED digital display 546

8.31 Sidereal telescope drive 548

8.32 An n-pulse generator 548

Logic pathology 551

8.33 dc problems 551

8.34 Switching problems 552

8.35 Congenital weaknesses of TTL and CMOS 554

Self-explanatory circuits 556

8.36 Circuit ideas 556

8.37 Bad circuits 556

Additional exercises 556

CHAPTER 9

DIGITAL MEETS ANALOG 565

CMOS and TTL logic interfacing 565

9.01 Logic family chronology 565

9.02 Input and output characteristics 570

9.03 Interfacing between logic families 572

9.04 Driving CMOS amd TTL inputs 575

9.05 Driving digital logic from comparators and op-amps 577

9.06 Some comments about logic inputs 579

9.07 Comparators 580

9.08 Driving external digital loads from CMOS and TTL 582

9.09 NMOS LSI interfacing 588

9.10 Opto-electronics  599

9.11 On-board interconnections 599

9.12 Intercard connections 601

9.13 Data buses 602

9.14 Driving cables 603

9.15 Introduction to AID conversion 612

Digital signals and long wires Analog/digital conversion 612

9.16 Digital-to-analog converters (DACs) 614

9.17 Time-domain (averaging) DACs 618

9.18 Multiplying DACs 619

9.19 Choosing a DAC 619

9.20 Analog-to-digital converters 621

9.21 Charge-balancing techniques 626

9.22 Some unusual AID and D/A converters 630

9.23 Choosing an ADC 631 Some AID conversion examples 636

9.24 16-Channel AID data-acquisition system 636

9.25 3~-Digit voltmeter 638

9.26 Coulomb meter 640

Phase-locked loops 641

9.27 Introduction to phase-locked loops 641

9.28 PLL design 646

9.29 Design example: frequency multiplier 647

9.30 PLL capture and lock 651

9.31 Some PLL applications 652

Pseudo-random bit sequences and noise generation 655

9.32 Digital noise generation 655

Software system concepts 714

9.33 Feedback shift register sequences 655

9.34 Analog noise generation from maximal-length sequences 658

9.35 Power spectrum of shift register sequences 658

9.36 Low-pass filtering 660

9.37 Wrap-up 661

9.38 Digital filters 664

Self-explanatory circuits 667

9.39 Circuit ideas 667

9.40 Bad circuits 668

Additional exercises 668

CHAPTER 10

MICROCOMPUTERS 673


Minicomputers. microcomputers. And microprocessors 673

10.01 Computer architecture 674

A computer instruction set 678

10.02 Assembly language and machine language 678

10.03 Simplified 808618 instruction set 679

10.04 A programming example 683

Bus signals and interfacing 684

10.05 Fundamental bus signals: data, address, strobe 684

10.06 Programmed 110: data out 685

10.07 Programmed 110: data in 689

10.08 Programmed I/O: status registers 690

10.09 Interrupts 693

10.10 Interrupt handling 695

10.11 Interrupts in general 697

10.12 Direct memory access 701

10.13 Summary of the IBM PC’s bus signals 704

10.14 Synchronous versus asynchronous bus communication 707

10.15 Other microcomputer buses 708

10.16 Connecting peripherals to the computer 711

 

10.17 Programming 714

10.18 Operating systems, files, and use of memory 716

Data communications concepts 719

10.19 Serial communication and ASCII 720

10.20 Parallel communication: Centronics, SCSI, IPI,

GPIB (488) 730

10.21 Local area networks 734

10.22 Interface example: hardware data packing 736

10.23 Number formats 738

CHAPTER 11

MICROPROCESSORS 743

A detailed look at the 68008 744

11.01 Registers, memory, and 110 744

11.02 Instruction set and addressing 745

11.03 Machine-language representation 750

11.04 Bus signals 753

A complete design example: analog signal average 760

11.05 Circuit design 760

11.06 Programming: defining the task 774

11.07 Programming: details 777

11.08 Performance 796

11.09 Some afterthoughts 797

Microprocessor support chips 799

11.10 Medium-scale integration 800

11. 11 Peripheral LSI chips 802

11.12 Memory 812

11.13 Other microprocessors 820

11.14 Emulators, development systems,

logic analyzers, and evaluation boards 821

CHAPTER 12

ELECTRONIC CONSTRUCTION

TECHNIQUES 827

Prototyping methods 827

12.01 Breadboards 827

12.02 PC prototyping boards 828

12.03 Wire-Wrap panels 828

Printed circuits 830

12.04 PC board fabrication 830

12.05 PC board design 835

12.06 Stuffing PC boards 838

12.07 Some further thoughts on PC boards 840

12.08 Advanced techniques 841

Instrument construction 852

12.09 Housing circuit boards in an instrument 852

12.10 Cabinets 854

12.11 Construction hints 855

12.12 Cooling 855

12.13 Some electrical hints 858

12.14 Where to get components 860

CHAPTER 13

HIGH-FREQUENCY AND HIGH-SPEED

TECHNIQUES 863

High-frequency amplifiers 863

13.01 Transistor amplifiers at high frequencies: first look 863

13.02 High-frequency amplifiers: the ac model 864

13.03 A high-frequency calculation example 866

13.04 High-frequency amplifier configurations 868

13.05 A wideband design example 869

13.06 Some refinements to the ac model 872

13.07 The shunt-series pair 872

13.08 Modular amplifiers 873

Radiofrequency circuit elements 879

13.09 Transmission lines 879

13.10 Stubs, baluns, and transformers 881

13.11 Tuned amplifiers 882

13.12 Radiofrequency circuit elements 884

13.13 Measuring amplitude or power 888

Radiofrequency communications: AM 892

13.14 Some communications concepts 892

13.15 Amplitude modulation 894

13.16 Superheterodyne receiver 895

Advanced modulation methods 897

13.17 Single sideband 897

13.18 Frequency modulation 898

13.19 Frequency-shift keying 900

13.20 Pulse-modulation schemes 900

Radiofrequency circuit tricks 902

13.21 Special construction techniques 902

13.22 Exotic RF amplifiers and devices 903

High-speed switching 904

13.23 Transistor model and equations 905

13.24 Analog modeling tools 908

Some switching-speed examples 909

13.25 High-voltage driver 909

13.26 Open-collector bus driver 910

13.27 Example: photomultiplier preamp 911

Self-explanatory circuits 913

13.28 Circuit ideas 913

Additional exercises 913

CHAPTER 14

LOW-POWER DESIGN 917

Introduction 917

14.01 Low-power applications 918

Power sources 920

14.02 Battery types 920

14.03 Wall-plug-in units 931

14.04 Solar cells 932

14.05 Signal currents 933

Power switching and micropower regUlators 938

14.06 Power switching 938

14.07 Micropower regulators 941

14.08 Ground reference 944

14.09 Micropower voltage references and

temperature sensors 948

Linear micropower design techniques 948

14.10 Problems of micropower linear design 950

14.11 Discrete linear design example 950

14.12 Micropower operational amplifiers 951

14.13 Micropower comparators 965

14.14 Micropower timers and oscillators 965

Micropower digital design 969

14.15 CMOS families 969

14.16 Keeping CMOS low power 970

14.17 Micropower microprocessors and peripherals 974

14.18 Microprocessor design example: degree-day logger 9,78

Self-explanatory circuits 985

14.19 Circuit ideas 985

CHAPTER 15

MEASUREMENTS AND SIGNAL

PROCESSING 987

Overview 987

Measurement transducers 988

15.01 Temperature 988

15.02 Light level 996

15.03 Strain and displacement 1001

15.04 Acceleration, pressure, force, velocity 1004

15.05 Magnetic field 1007

15.06 Vacuum gauges 1007

15.07 Particle detectors 1008

15.08 Biological and chemical voltage probes 1012

Precision standards and precision measurements 1016

15.09 Frequency standards 1016

15.10 Frequency, period, and time interval measurements 1019

15.11 Voltage and resistance standards and measurements 1025

Bandwidth-narrowing techniques 1026

15.12 The problem of signal-to-noise ratio 1026

15.13 Signal averaging and multichannel averaging 1026

15.14 Making a signal periodic 1030

15.15 Lock-in detection 1031

15.16 Pulse-height analysis 1034

15.17 Time-to-amplitude converters 1035

Spectrum analysis and Fourier transforms 1035

15.18 Spectrum analyzers 1035

15.19 Off-line spectrum analysis 1038

Self-explanatory circuits 1038

15.20 Circuit ideas 1038

APPENDIXES 1043

Appendix A

The oscilloscope 1045

Appendix B

Math review 1050

Appendix C

The 5% resistor color code 1053

Appendix D

1% Precision resistors 1054

Appendix E

How to draw schematic diagrams 1056

Appendix F

Load lines 1059

Appendix G

Transistor saturation 1062

Appendix H

LC Butterworth filters 1064

Appendix I

Electronics magazines and journals

1068

Appendix J

IC prefixes 1069

Appendix K

Data sheets 1072

2N4400-1 NPN transistor 1073

LF411-12 JFET operational

amplifier 1078

LM317 3-termina1 adjustable

regulator 1086

Bibliography 1095

Index 1101


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