تحميل كتاب موريس مانو Computer Systems Architecture by M. Morris Mano علي اكثر من سيرفر

الكاتب الشهير موريس مانو من رواد الحاسب الالي ولا تكاد تخلو كلية للحاسب من احد كتبة تدرس فيها و من اشهر و اعمق كتبه كتاب معمارية نظم الحاسب او  Computer System Architectureالذي طال انتظارنا لان يكون متواجد الكترونيا اليوم نقدمة لكم بحجم ضغير جدا وامكانية نسخ النص لتسهيل عملية الترجمة ومرفق معه البرنامج الدي يقوم بقتحه

الكتاب يتحدث عن معمارية الحاسب وهي

computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It’s a blueprint and functional description of requirements and design implementations for the various parts of a computer, focusing largely on the way by which the central processing unit (CPU) performs internally and accesses addresses in memory.

كما تيحدث عن تنظيم الحاسب وهو

Computer organization helps optimize performance-based products. For example, software engineers need to know the processing ability of processors. They may need to optimize software in order to gain the most performance at the least expense. This can require quite detailed analysis of the computer organization. For example, in a multimedia decoder, the designers might need to arrange for most data to be processed in the fastest data path.

كما يتحدث عن تصميم الحاسب وهو

Computer design is concerned with the hardware design of the computer. Once the computer specifications are formulated, it is the task of the designer  to develop hardware for the system. Computer design is concerned with the determination of what hardware should be used and how the parts should be connected. This aspect of computer hardware is sometimes referred to as computer implementation.

محتويات الكتاب

1. Digital Logic Circuits.

2. Digital Components.

3. Data Representation.

4. Register Transfer and Microoperations.

5. Basic Computer Organization and Design.

6. Programming the Basic Computer.

7. Microprogrammed Control.

8. Central Progressing Unit (CPU).

9. Pipeline and Vector Processing.

10. Computer Arithmetic.

11. Input-Output Organization.

12. Memory Organization.

13. Multiprocessors


Digital Logic Circuits
Digital Computers
Logic Gates
Boolean Algebra
Complement of a Function 10
Map Simplification
Product-of-Sums Simplification 14
Don’t-Care Conditions 16
Combinational Circuits
Half-Adder 19
Full-Adder 20
Flip-Flops
SR Flip-Fbp 22
D Flip-Flop 23
JK Flip-Flop 24
T Flip-Flop 24
Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops 25
Excitation Tables 27
Sequential Circuits
Flip-Fbp Input Equations 28
State Table 30
State Diagram 31
Design Example 32
Design Procedure 36
Problems
References
Digital Components
2-1 Integrated Circuits
2-2 Decoders
NAND Gate Decoder 45
Decoder Expansion 46
Encoders 47
2-3 Multiplexers
2-4 Registers
Register with Parallel Load 51
2-5 Shift Registers
Bidirectional Shift Register with Parallel Load
2-6 Binary Counters
Binary Counter with Parallel Load 58
2-7 Memory Unit
Random-Access Memory 60
Read-Only Memory 61
Types of ROMs 62
Problems
References
Data Representation
3-1 Data Types
Number Systems 68
Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers 69
Decimal Representation 72
Alphanumeric Representation 73
3 ‘2 Complements
(r-l)’s Complement 75
(r’s) Complement 75
Subtraction of Unsigned Numbers 76
3’3 Fixed-Point Representation
Integer Representation 78
Arithmetic Addition 79
Arithmetic Subtraction 80
Overflow 80
Decimal Fixed-Point Representation 81
3-4 Floating-Point Representation 83
3-5 Other Binary Codes 84
Gray Code 84
Other Decimal Codes 85
Other Alphanumeric Codes 86
3-6 Error Detection Codes 87
Problems 89
References 91
Register Transfer and Microoperations 93
4-1 Register Transfer Language 93
4-2 Register Transfer 95
4-3 Bus and Memory Transfers 97
Three-State Bus Buffers 100
Memory Transfer 101
4-4 Arithmetic Microoperations 102
Binary Adder 103
Binary Adder-Subtracter 104
Binary Incrementer 105
Arithmetic Circuit 106
4-5 Logic Microoperations 108
List of Logic Microoperations 109
Hardware Implementation 111
Some Applications 111
4-6 Shift Microoperations 114
Hardware Implementation 115
4-7 Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit 116
Problems 119
References 122
Basic Computer Organization and Design 123
5-1 Instruction Codes 123
Stored Program Organization 125
Indirect Address 126
5-2 Computer Registers 127
Common Bus System 129
5-3 Computer Instructions 132
Instruction Set Completeness 134
5-4 Timing and Control 135
5-5 Instruction Cycle 139
Fetch and Decode 139
Determine the Type of Instruction 141
Register-Reference Instructions 143
5-6 Memory-Reference Instructions 145
AND to AC 145
ADD to AC 146
LDA: Load to AC 146
STA: Store AC 147
BUN: Branch Unconditionally 147
BSA: Branch and Save Return Address 147
1SZ: Increment and Skip If Zero 149
Control Flowchart 149
5-7 Input-Output and Interrupt 150
Input-Output Configuration 151
Input-Output Instructions 152
Program Interrupt 153
Interrupt Cycle 156
5-8 Complete Computer Description 157
5-9 Design of Basic Computer 157
Control Logic Gates 160
Control of Registers and Memory 160
Control of Single Flip-Flops 162
Control of Common Bus 162
5’10 Design of Accumulator Logic 164
Control of AC Register 165
Adder and Logic Circuit 166
Problems 167
References 171
Programming the Basic Computer 173
6-1 Introduction 173
6-2 Machine Language 174
Assembly Language
Rules of the Language 179
An Example 181
Translation to Binary 182
The Assembler
Representation of Symbolic Program
in Memory 184
First Pass 185
Second Pass 187
Program Loops
Programming Arithmetic and Logic
Operations
Multiplication Program 193
Double-Precision Addition 196
Logic Operations 197
Shift Operations 197
Subroutines
Subroutines Parameters and Data Linkage 200
Input-Output Programming
Character Manipulation 204
Program Interrupt 205
Problems
References
Microprogrammed Control
7-1 Control Memory
7-2 Address Sequencing
Conditional Branching 217
Mapping of Instruction 219
Subroutines 220
7-3 Microprogram Example 220
Computer Configuration 220
Microinstruction Format 222
Symbolic Microinstructions 225
The Fetch Routine 226
Symbolic Microprogram 227
Binary Microprogram 229
7-4 Design of Control Unit
Microprogram Sequencer 232
Problems
References
Central Processing Unit
8-1 Introduction
8-2 General Register Organization
Control Word 244
Examples of Microoperations 246
8-3 Stack Organization
Register Stack 247
Memory Stack 249
Reverse Polish Notation 251
Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions 253
8-4 Instruction Formats
Three-Address Instructions 258
Two-Address Instructions 258
One-Address Instructions 259
Zero-Address Instructions 259
RISC Instructions 259
8-5 Addressing Modes
Numerical Example 264
8-6 Data Transfer and Manipulation
Data Transfer Instructions 267
Data Manipulation Instructions 268
Arithmetic Instructions 269
Logical and Bit Manipulation Instructions
Shift Instructions 271
8-7 Program Control
Status Bit Conditions 274
Conditional Branch Instructions 275
Subroutine Call and Return 278
Program Interrupt 279
Types of Interrupts 281
8-8 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
CISC Characteristics 283
RISC Characteristics 284
Overlapped Register Windows 285
Berkeley RISC 1 288
Problems 291
References 297
Pipeline and Vector Processing
Parallel Processing
Pipelining
General Considerations 304
Arithmetic Pipeline
Instruction Pipeline
Example: Four-Segment Instruction Pipeline 311
Data Dependency 313
Handling of Branch Instructions 314
RISC Pipeline
Example: Three-Segment Instruction Pipeline 316
Delayed Load 317
Delayed Branch 318
Vector Processing
Vector Operations 321
Matrix Multiplication 322
Memory Interleaving 324
Supercomputers 325
Array Processors
Attached Array Processor 326
SIMD Array Processor 327
Problems
Computer Arithmetic 333
10-1 Introduction 333
10-2 Addition and Subtraction 334
Addition and Subtraction with Signed-Magnitude
Data 335
Hardware Implementation 336
Hardware Algorithm 337
Addition and Subtraction with Signed-2’s
Complement Data 338
10-3 Multiplication Algorithms 340
Hardware Implementation for Signed-Magnitude
Data 341
Hardware Algorithm 342
Booth Multiplication Algorithm 343
Array Multiplier 346
10-4 Division Algorithms 348
Hardware Implementation for Signed-Magnitude
Data 349
Divide Overflow 351
Hardware Algorithm 352
Other Algorithms 353
10-5 Floating-Point Arithmetic Operations 354
Basic Considerations 354
Register Configuration 357
Addition and Subtraction 358
Multiplication 360
Division 362
10-6 Decimal Arithmetic Unit 363
BCD Adder 365
BCD Subtraction 368
10-7 Decimal Arithmetic Operations 369
Addition and Subtraction 371
Multiplication 371
Division 374
Floating-Point Operations 376
Problems 376
References 380
Input-Output Organization 381
11-1 Peripheral Devices 381
ASCII Alphanumeric Characters 383
11-2 Input-Output Interface 385
I/O Bus and Interface Modules 386
I/O versus Memory Bus 387
Isolated versus Memory-Mapped I/O 388
Example of I/O Interface 389
11’3 Asynchronous Data Transfer 391
Strobe Control 391
Handshaking 393
i Asynchronous Serial Transfer 396
Asynchronous Communication Interface 398
First-ln, First-Out Buffer 400
11’4 Modes of Transfer 402
Example of Programmed I/O 403
Interrupt-lnitiated I/O 406
Software Considerations 406
11-5 Priority Interrupt 407
Daisy-Chaining Priority 408
Parallel Priority Interrupt 409
Priority Encoder 411
Interrupt Cycle 412
Software Routines 413
Initial and Final Operations 414
11’6 Direct Memory Access (DMA) 415
DMA Controller 416
DMA Transfer 418
11-7 Input-Output Processor (lOP) 420
CPL/-IOP Communication 422
IBM 370 I/O Channel 423
Intel 8089 lOP 427
11’8 Serial Communication 429
Character-Oriented Protocol 432
Transmission Example 433
Data Transparency 436
Bit-Oriented Protocol 437
Problems 439
References 442
Memory Organization 445
12-1 Memory Hierarchy 445
12-2 Main Memory 448
RAM and ROM Chips 449
Memory Address Map 450
Memory Connection to CPU 452
12-3 Auxiliary Memory 452
Magnetic Disks 454
Magnetic Tape 455
12-4 Associative Memory 456
Hardware Organization 457
Match Logic 459
Read Operation 460
Write Operation 461
12-5 Cache Memory 462
Associative Mapping 464
Direct Mapping 465
Set-Associative Mapping 467
Writing into Cache 468
Cache Initialization 469
12-6 Virtual Memory 469
Address Space and Memory Space 470
Address Mapping Using Pages 472
Associative Memory Page Table 474
Page Replacement 475
12-7 Memory Management Hardware 476
Segmented-Page Mapping 477
Numerical Example 479
Memory Protection 482
Problems 483
References 486
Multiprocessors
Characteristics of Multiprocessors
Interconnection Structures
Time-Shared Common Bus 491
Multipart Memory 493
Crossbar Switch 494
Multistage Switching Network 496
Hypercube Interconnection 498
Interprocessor Arbitration
System Bus 500
Serial Arbitration Procedure 502
Parallel Arbitration Logic 503
Dynamic Arbitration Algorithms 505
13-4 Interprocessor Communication and
Synchronization 506
Interprocessor Synchronization 507
Mutual Exclusion with a Semaphore 508
13-5 Cache Coherence 509
Conditions for Incoherence 509
Solutions to the Cache Coherence Problem 510
Problems 512
References 514
Index


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